Be it on a large scale or a small scale, different types of ground operations are involved in building projects. Excavation and digging of large amounts of soil, piling, placing of building materials (concrete), levelling, dozing, ferrying, etc. are some essential processes that are an integral part of building endeavours.
Based on their functionality and use, commonly used construction machines can be classified as follows:
An excavator is one of the types of construction equipment used to dig or move big and heavy objects. It consists essentially of two parts: a driving base connected a sturdy boom arm with an attachment built for excavation. The operator sits in a compact cab attached to the base and regulates the arm. The excavator uses a hydraulic device to produce a hydraulic force to power the mechanical arm. It also uses a chain wheel mechanism to drive it.
Excavators are widely used in large and small-scale constructions. In small housing projects, they are used for cutting and filling. They are also used in road building and constructing marine structures to position armour and large rocks. Apart from this, this construction machine is utilised at larger sites to dig, move building materials, extract waste, etc. There are many types of excavators, which are graded as per their use, brand and function.
A grader is a construction machine fitted with a long blade used for levelling the surface. The equipment is also referred to as road grader, blade, or maintainer. It consists of three axles, with the engine and cab at the top. Rear axles are positioned at one end of the vehicle and the third axle at the front with the blade in between.
Graders are often used in road building for the construction and maintenance of dirt tracks and gravel driveways. While constructing paved roads, graders are used for planning the base course to create a broad flat surface where Asphalt can be laid. They are also used to set up native soil foundation pads for grade completion before the construction of large buildings.
Graders often have various types; some consist of a wide front fork, and some consist of a flat front blade, available in different sizes.
Pile Boring Machine
The piling construction equipment is basically useful in Cast in Situ Pile Foundation (the piles which are cast on-site and don’t require any transportation). With the help of different types of drilling tools, the pile boring machine is able to get the piling foundation work done in a broader range of construction projects, whether it is in urban settings or provinces.
The machine is primarily used for drilling holes for constructing Pile Foundation. It requires more care and maintenance since heavy-duty work is involved.
The backhoe also referred to as the rear or back actor, is a portion of excavation equipment or digger comprising of a digging bucket at the end of a two-part extended arm. Usually, they are positioned on the back of a tractor or front loader.
The part of arm near the vehicle is known as the boom, and the section holding the bucket is referred to as dipper or dipper stick (the words ‘boom’ and ‘dipper’ have historically been used on steam shovels). The boom is connected to the vehicle through a pivot known as the Kingpost. It allows the arm to travel left and right, normally over a total of around 200 degrees. Modern rear holes are powered by hydraulic systems.
Backhoes are utilised for a wide variety of tasks: installation, small razing, light hauling of construction materials, powering building equipment, digging holes/excavation, landscaping, cutting Asphalt, and road paving.
Concrete (Cement Mixer) is a machine that blends cement uniformly to form aggregates such as sand or gravel and concrete fluid (Cement + water mixture).
A standard concrete mixer uses a revolving drum to combine the components. For smaller quantities, portable concrete mixers are frequently used on-site so that employees have enough time to use the concrete before it stiffens.
A crane is one of the most popular types of construction equipment widely used in building activities for heavy lifting and transport material to other sites. Usually, one or more basic machines are employed at the site to offer mechanical advantage and transfer loads. These are usually fitted with an elevator, cords or chains and sheaves that can be used both for moving and for raising and lowering materials horizontally.
Cranes are widely used in the transport industry for the loading and unloading of goods for the movement of materials and in manufacturing industries for the assembly of machinery.