A construction job involves the use of various technologically advanced equipment that eases and saves the time of work. Lets Long cylindrical materials that are put inside the ground for supporting the structures built above the ground are called Piles. Piles are made of different materials such as timber or wood, metal, concrete, steel, or composite. Earlier wooden piles were used for providing more strength where the soil was weak. Structural engineers help in advising and selecting the suitable piles after studying the soil quality and type. The piles must be placed, very carefully by distributing the weight evenly without focusing it in one place. A group of piles is tied together with a concrete cap over it. Above the concrete cap, a column is constructed. This concrete cap serves as a base for the structure to stand strong.
When is pile foundation used?
Piles have a strong bearing capacity to take the heavy loads of structures built above it. It is mostly used, in certain situations, like when the soil layer beneath the ground is weak and hence cannot bear the weight of the building or structure. The piles have to cross this layer to reach the strong rock or soil below the weak layer. Secondly, it is also used, for building strong, tall structures or water tanks.
Load or end-bearing piles and Friction piles are types of pile foundations. A friction pile is a pile that transfers the load to the soil, while the pile that transfers the load to the soil, through the lower end of the pile is an end-bearing pile.
Process of piling
The piling process depends on the machines or equipment used. Some piling process involves hammering while some don’t. Hence depending on the areas where it has to be used, micro piling, helical piling machine, or hammering is recommended.
Equipment used in Pile driving
Winches, hanging leader, Piling rigs, hammer guides, hammer, Helmet, driving cap, and packaging are piling equipment. Pile driving is the process of forcing the pile into the ground.
With the increasing developments in the roads, rails, or other construction activities, there is a proportionate increase in the designing and manufacturing of forceful machines or equipment for driving piles deep into the surface considering the soil type and strata. Pile type decides the piling machine driving equipment to be used,
Piling rigs are one of the equipment used in driving the pile into the ground and are commonly used in foundation engineering. It works like a drill to get into sandy soil, clay, silty clay. Mostly it is used in a cast-in-place pile (for understanding more about cast-in-place piles refer above). They are designed and developed in such a way that they have a removable undercarriage for applying piles. The piling rigs are categorized into small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized torque.
Working of piling rig
- Piling rigs are highly advanced and sophisticated equipment used in the construction industry for bridges, buildings, and other construction projects.
- They move up and down in a single line when weight is placed between the guides. Diesel or hydraulic hammers are used to raise the weight and hammer the piles into the ground. At a certain height, the weight is released, allowing the pile to come down and drive into the ground.
- Diesel hammer: The piston weight helps in compressing the air, ignition of fuel. The weight is released at a certain height
- Hydraulic hammer: This is an alternative to a hydraulic hammer. This is mostly used in areas or locations where there is a considerable restriction on the noise. They also help in controlling pollution. A hydraulic motor speeds up the process. The double chain raises the weight to a certain height pushes the right to fall.
- Accelerated hydraulic hammers: These ensure faster-piling into the ground. Various types of pile sizes can be driven into the ground, with accelerated hydraulic hammers.
- It has many leaders acting as a support system for the hammer and the pile. When the pile goes into the ground, it also guides the hammer and the pile properly.
- The screw and the base of the equipment are used to slope the leader back and forth. The piles can also be installed without moving the equipment from the base machine and leader positioning.
- For pile installation inside the water, a pontoon is used. The piling rig is placed on the pontoon.
- The crucial part of the piling rig is the position of the leader as any disposition of the leader while working may lead to severe damage to the pile or, cause the position to get affected.